Summary: It is desirable to know the underlying theory behind Holistic Management to understand
both the science applied and the methodology. Jan Christian Smuts who wrote “Holism
and Evolution” in 1926 provided the theoretical base. Smuts, more than anyone
subsequently provided sound reasoning to accept “holism” as the operating principle in
nature. The concept that nature functioned in wholes and patterns of great complexity,
unlike the mechanistic world view in which nature is viewed as a complicated machine
with interconnecting parts.