Summary: Although collaborative management has gained popularity across the United States as a means of addressing the sustainability of mixed-ownership landscapes and resolving persistent conflicts in public lands management, it has nonetheless generated skepticism because frameworks to assess on-the-ground outcomes are poorly developed or altogether lacking. The holistic ecosystem health indicator, a promising framework for evaluating the outcomes of collaborative processes, uses ecological, social, and interactive indicators to monitor conditions over time.
Muñoz-Erickson, T. A., B. Aguilar-González, and T. D. Sisk. 2007. “Linking Ecosystem Health Indicators and Collaborative Management: A Systematic Framework to Evaluate Ecological and Social Outcomes,” Ecology and Society 12, no. 2: 6.